Northern Andhra Pradesh, known as Telengana, had long been a part of the Chalukyan empire until it became the independent Kakatiya kingdom of its vassal ruler in the eleventh century AD. The Kakatiya derived their name from their family deity, Goddess Kakati or Durga, and they ruled the land for almost three hundred years till Prince Ulugh Khan (later Mohammad-bin-Tughlaq) of the Delhi Sultanate conquered the kingdom in 1323.
Hanumankonda or Hanamakonda was the first capital of the dynasty which later shifted to Warangal - then called Orugallu or Ekashila. Warangal
and Hanamkonda as legend goes is linked with the
dynasties of Great
"Vishnukundins" and even prior to it
also of the Buddhist and pre_Buddhist periods of
indian History.During Eighth Century A.D. ,
Warangal with an old name "Orukal" has
served as Capital City of Yadava king of the
Kakatiyas or Ganapatis making Warangal as Capital
City.The name of Warangal "Orugallu" is
said to be correct form of Orukal which is the
original designation ,the old town.
Raja Ganapatideva was the most powerful and eminent ruler of the dynasty who expanded the kingdom from the coastal Bay of Bengal in the east to the holy city of Kancheepuram in the south. Well versed in art and culture and literary pursuits, Kakatiya kings were great builders too. The Chalukyan style of temple architecture and decorative skill in sculpting greatly flourished and improved during their reign. These mighty kings were benevolent, egalitarian and able administrators - having democratic outlook in their governance.
The Kakatiya period was rightly called the brightest period of the Telugu history. The entire Telugu speaking area was under the kings who spoke Telugu and encouraged Telugu. They established order throughout the strife torn land and the forts built by them played a dominant role in the defence of the realm. Anumakonda and Gandikota among the 'giridurgas', Kandur and Narayanavanam among the 'vanadurgas', Divi and Kolanu among the 'jaladurgas', and Warangal and Dharanikota among the 'sthaladurgas' were reckoned as the most famous strongholds in the Kakatiya period. The administration of the kingdom was organized with accent on the military.
Though Saivism continued to be the religion of the masses, intellectuals favoured revival of Vedic rituals. They sought to reconcile the Vaishnavites and the Saivites through the worship of Harihara. Arts and literature found patrons in the Kakatiyas and their feudatories. Tikkana Somayaji, who adorned the court of the Telugu Chola ruler Manumasiddhi II, wrote the last 15 cantos of the Mahabharata which was lying unfinished. Sanskrit, which could not find a place in the Muslim-occupied north, received encouragement at the hands of the Kakatiyas. Prataparudra was himself a writer and he encouraged other literature.
The Kakatiya dynasty expressed itself best through religious art. Kakatiya art preserved the balance between architecture and sculpture, that is, while valuing sculpture, it laid emphasis on architecture where due. The Kakatiya temples, dedicated mostly to Siva, reveal in their construction a happy blending of the styles of North India and South India which influenced the political life of the Deccan.
- Chalukyan and Kakatiya Dynasty (1000 - 1323)
- After Kakatiyas (1323 - 1725)
- Asifijahi Stage (1725 - 1948)
- Modern Stage (1948 - On Wards.)
Chalukyan and Kakatiya Dynasty:
Betharaju-I (1000 - 1030) ruled this area under the control of chalukyas.
Prolaraju - I (1030 - 1075) son of Betharaju-I was a great warior who established anumakonda kingdom with the help of chalukyas.He built many lakes like Kesari samudram now ksamudram.
Betharaju-II (1075 - 1108) son of prolaraju-I
Durgasrupathi (1108 - 1116) son of betharaju-II
Prolaraju - II (1116 - 1158) son of durgasrupathi extended his sway to the south and declared his independence.
Rudradeva(1158-1195) son of prolaraju-II pushed the kingdom to the north up to the Godavari delta. He built a fort at Warangal to serve as a second capital and faced the invasions of the Yadavas of Devagiri.
The first sovereign ruler of the dynasty, King Rudradeva, built the exquisite Thousand Pillar temple at Hanamakonda in thanksgiving for his victory in the battle with the Yadavas of Devgiri.
This temple is dedicated to the 'Trikuta' or the trinity of Lord Shiva, Vishnu and Sun who are being worshipped here till this day. The imposing star shaped temple complex within a walled enclosure has been constructed with finely carved black basalt, a favourite material with the Kakatiyas and their talented artisans. The partly roofless 'mandapam' of the elaborate structure has numerous intricately carved stone pillars among which sits a huge and beautiful monolothic 'Nandi' (bull) - the mount of Lord Shiva. The doorways of the shrine are richly ornamented with highly polished stone-carved figures and floral motifs in looped chains. Though basically built in the traditional Chalukyan style of architecture, the Thousand Pillar Temple displays many striking new features introduced during the Kakatiya period.
Mahadeva (1195-1198) brother of rudradeva became the king since rudradeva has no sons, and died under invasion of devagiri.
- Ganapathideva (1199 - 1261) son of mahadeva as the greatest of the Kakatiyas and the first after the Satavahanas to bring the entire Telugu area under one rule. He put an end to the rule of the Velanati Cholas in A.D.1210. He forced the Telugu Cholas of Vikramasimhapura to accept his suzerainty. He established order in his vast dominion and encouraged trade.
When King Ganapatideva had once been taken captive in a freak battle, his brave and faithful Commander-in-Chief, Rudra, held temporary charge of the kingdom for his master. Later, as a reward for his loyalty and heroic struggle in freeing the King, he was bestowed with the fief of a large tract of land. At Palampet, 60 km north of Warangal, Rudra constructed a vast reservoir and the magnificent Ramappa temple on its bank, achieving both social and religious purposes. The large lake met the irrigation needs, while the temple became the centre for interaction among people from diverse walks of life who came there to pray.
Rudramadevi (1261 - 1289):As Ganapati Deva had no sons, his daughter Rudramba succeeded him in A.D.1262 and carried on the administration. Some generals, who did not like to be ruled by her, rebelled. She could, however, suppress the internal rebellions and external invasions with the help of loyal subordinates. The Cholas and the Yadavas suffered such set backs at her hands that they did not think of troubling her for the rest of her rule.
Prataparudra (1289 - 1323) succeeded his grandmother Rudramba he pushed the western border of his kingdom up to Raichur. He introduced many administrative reforms. He divided the kingdom into 75 Nayakships, which was later adopted and developed by the Rayas of Vijayanagara. In his time the territory constituting Andhra Pradesh had the first experience of a Muslim invasion. In A.D.1303, the Delhi Sultan Ala-ud-din Khilji sent an army to plunder the kingdom. But Prataparudra defeated them at Upparapalli in Karimnagar district. In A.D. 1310, when another army under Malik Kafur invaded Warangal, Prataparudra yielded and agreed to pay a large tribute. In A.D.1318, when Ala-ud-din Khilji died, Prataparudra withheld the tribute. It provoked another invasion of the Muslims. In A.D.1321, Ghiaz-ud-din Tughlaq sent a large army under Ulugh Khan to conquer the Telugu country then called Tilling. He laid siege to Warangal, but owing to internal dissensions he called off the siege and returned to Delhi. Within a short period, he came back with a much bigger army. In spite of unpreparedness, Prataparudra fought bravely. For want of supplies, he surrendered to the enemy who sent him to Delhi as a prisoner, and he died on the way. Thus ended the Kakatiya rule, opening the gates of the Telugu land to anarchy and confusion yielding place to an alien ruler.
In 1323 AD Prataparudra the Kakatiya ruler of Warangal was defeated and over throne by Ulugh khan, the general of Sultan Ghajas -ud-din.The treasury superintendent of Prataparudra Harihara and Bukka fled to Kampil, and took refuge there. Kampiladeva the ruler of Kampil was overthrown and Harihara and Bukka were taken as prisoners to Delhi. The confusion that prevailed during the rule of Mahamud bin Tughlaq paved the way for Harihara and Bukka who with their local influence could prove advantageous for the Sultan. After the death of the sultan the Hindu rulers established themselves over Warangal . Amid the confusion that prevailed in the Sultanate, Harihara and Bukka founded the city of Vijayanagar on the banks of the Tungabhadra and declared themselves independent. They conquered parts of the Konkan and Malabar. They joined the confederacy of Krishna Nayak who sought to throw the Muslims out of South India. In 1346 AD they took possession of the Hoyasala territories. Harihara died in 1353 AD. His brother Bukka who governed over the western Telegu districts ruled till 1377AD. He was succeeded by Harihara II. He was capable of extending his territories by adding Mysore, Trichinpoly and Kanchi. He was succeeded by his son Bukka II who ruled for a couple of years. Bukka II was overthrown by Devaraya I. Devaraya I died in 1422 and was succeeded by his son Ramachandra who ruled as Devaraya II. He suffered a defeat at the hands of the Bahmani rulers in 1443AD. Owing to weak successors the Sangama Dynasty founded by Harihara and Bukkar declined in 1490AD.
In place of this came the Saluva dynasty which ruled from 1490-1505AD. This dynasty was founded by Narasimha who snatched the power from Virupaksha II the last Sangama ruler. Weak successors resulted in the decline of this dynasty and paved the way for the Tuluva dynasty.
The Tuluva dynasty was founded by Naresh Tuluva, the commander of Narsimha Rao's army. The most famous ruler of this dynasty was Krishna Deva Raya who ruled from 1505 to 1530 AD. He brought name to the dynasty by suppressing the revolts against him. He conquered Orissa, Udayagiri, Kondavidu and Kondagiri.In 1518 conqured orugallu which became part of vijayanagar empire In 1520 he defeated Adil Shah of Bijapur. He maintained a cordial relation with the foreign powers and carried on trade with the Portuguese. He was tolerant towards all religion and patronised learning and literature. He died in 1530AD and was succeeded byt Achyutha Deva whose in competency in administration led to the disintegration of the dynasty. Under the leadership of Rama Raya the empire was exposed to Muslim attacks. After the death of Rama Raya his brother Triumala established the Arvadiu dynasty. Owing to weak successors and the onslaught of Muslims the empire declined in 1614AD.
Before the coming of the Mughals into India there evolved several religious movements which led to the evolution of Sufism. The Bhakti movement was a renaissance in the Hindu religion which stressed the path of Bhakti for attaining salvation. New literary language evolved with various literary works too. After the downfall of the Delhi Sultanate there existed no central power which could provide a stable administration. The Hindus faced severe suppression under the Sultanate. The Delhi Sultanate was tottering. Mewar was a territory that prospered under the rule of Rana Sanga a Rajput. The Vijayanagar kingdom was in the height of glory in southern India while the Bahmani kingdom was breaking up. Khandesh, Kashmir, Orissa, Gujarat, Malwa, Bengal and Sind were independent.
After the fall of Kakatiyas, uncertainty prevailed over the region. Several small kingdoms came into existence, Musunuri Nayakas occupied Warangal from Muslims and ruled between A.D.1325--1368.
The fall of Kakatiya kingdom and its annexation to the Tughlak empire made the Hindu feudatories to unite themselves to liberate the Andhra country from alien rulers. A movement was started at Rekapalli on the bank of the Godavari under the leadership of Musunuri Prolaya Nayaka and his cousin Kapaya Nayaka and succeeded in driving away the Muslims from the Telugu country in A.D.1328. Kapaya Nayaka became the ruler in A.D.1333, after the demise of Prolaya Nayaka, and Warangal was once again the capital of the Telugu Country. They were dethroned by Recherla Chiefs and ruled the entire Telangana from A.D.1325 to 1474 with Rachakonda as their capital. The coastal area was ruled by the Reddis of Kondavidu between A.D.1325 and 1424. Addanki was their first capital which was later shifted to Kondavidu. There was also another branch of Reddis at Rajahmundry. In due course, Reddi kingdom disappeared in the hands of Vijayanagar kings, and Gajapatis of Orissa in the frequent battles with each other. The Gajapatis of Orissa with Cuttack as their capital extended their territory far into Telugu land by conquering the Reddis of Rajahmundry in A.D.1448. They also occupied some parts of the Bahmani kingdom. But, Vijayanagar king, Krishnadevaraya, occupied the entire Telugu region that was in the possession of Gajapatis.
The Reddis and Recherla chiefs were the patrons of learning. The renowned poet Srinatha, and one of the three great poets who wrote the Mahabharata in Telugu, Errapraggada lived in that age.
After krishnadevaraya this area came under the rule of golconda qutubshahis.abdul hasan tanisha was the last ruler whose employee was kancharla gopanna whose name was known as bhadrachala ramadas.Ministers akkana,madanna were from warangal.
In 1708 khila shahapura's sarvai papadu built forts in several villages and fought agains the sultans, he was able to keep some parts of warangal area under him for brief period.
Moghuls defeated abdul hasan tanisha and captured golconda in 1725, so warangal came under the rule of moghuls.